As received by NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF OGUN STATE STUDENTS (NAOSS) OGITECH CHAPTER ABOUT THE ONGOING ONLINE LECTURE,
DAY 1 LECTURE DELIVERED BY COMRADE JESUTOFUNMI COLLINS (NAOSS NATIONAL WELFARE DIRECTOR) ON BEHALF OF COMRADE OGUNROMBI GBEMILEKE PKA O’LEKE(NAOSS NATIONAL PRESIDENT)
DATE:24TH JULY 2020
TOPIC: SURVIVING AMIDST DEPRESSION

DEPRESSION
A Global Public Health Concern;
Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. Today, depression is estimated to affect 350 million people. The World Mental Health Survey conducted in 17 countries found that on average about 1 in 20 people reported having an episode of depression in the previous year. Depressive disorders often start at a young age; they reduce people’s functioning and often are recurring. For these reasons, depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide in terms of total years lost due to disability. The demand for curbing depression and other mental health conditions is on the rise globally. A recent World Health Assembly called on the World Health Organization and its member states to take action in this direction (WHO, 2012).

What is depression?
Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or
pleasure, decreased energy, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, and poor concentration. Moreover, depression often comes with symptoms of anxiety. These problems can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairments in an individual’s ability to take care of his or her everyday responsibilities. At its worst,
depression can lead to suicide. Almost 1 million lives are lost yearly due to suicide, which translates to 3000 suicide deaths every day. For every person who completes a suicide, 20 or more may attempt to end his or her life (WHO, 2012).
There are multiple variations of depression that a person can suffer from, with the most general distinction being depression in people who have or do not have a history of manic episodes.

DEPRESSION
A Global Public Health Concern

Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. Today, depression is estimated to affect 350 million people.

The World Mental
Health Survey conducted in 17 countries found that on average about 1 in 20 people reported having an episode of depression in the previous year. Depressive disorders often start at a young age; they reduce people’s functioning and often are recurring. For these reasons, depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide in terms of total years lost due to
disability. The demand for curbing depression and other mental health conditions is on the rise globally. A recent World Health Assembly called on the World Health Organization and its member states to take action in this direction (WHO, 2012).

What is depression?
Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or
pleasure, decreased energy, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, and poor concentration. Moreover, depression often comes with symptoms of anxiety. These problems can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairments in an individual’s ability to take care of his or her everyday responsibilities. At its worst, depression can lead to suicide. Almost 1 million lives are lost yearly due to suicide, which translates to 3000 suicide deaths every day. For every person who completes a suicide, 20 or more may attempt to
end his or her life (WHO, 2012). There are multiple variations of depression that a person can suffer from, with the most general distinction being depression in people who have or do not have a history of manic episodes. The WHO Intervention Guide, preferable
treatment options consist of basic psycho social support combined with antidepressant or psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or problem-solving treatment. Antidepressant medications and brief,structured forms of psychotherapy are effective. Antidepressants can be a very effective form of treatment for moderate-severe depression but are not the first line of treatment for cases of mild or sub-threshold depression. As an adjunct to care by specialists or in primary health care, self-help is an important approach to help people with depression outcomes for people with depression and anxiety disorders. The intervention consisted of case management and psycho social interventions led by a trained lay health counselor, as well as supervision by a mental health specialist and medication from a primary care physician. The trial found that patients in the intervention group were more likely to have recovered at 6 months than patients in the control group, and therefore that an intervention by a trained lay counselor can lead to an improvement in recovery from depression (Patel et al, 2010).
Despite the known effectiveness of treatment for depression, the majority of people in need do not receive it. Where data is available, this is glob￾ally fewer than 50%, but fewer than 30% for most regions and even less than 10% in some countries.
Barriers to effective care include the lack of resources, lack of trained providers, and socialist stigma associated with mental disorders.

Reducing the burden of depression
While the global burden of depression poses a substantial public health challenge, both at the social and economic levels as well as the clinical level, there are a number of well-defined and evidence￾based strategies that can effectively address or combat this burden. For common mental disorders such as depression being managed in primary care settings, the key interventions are treatment with generic antidepressant drugs and brief psychotherapy. Economic analysis has indicated that treating depression in primary care is feasible, affordable and cost-effective.

The prevention of depression is an area that deserves attention. Many prevention programs implemented across the lifespan have provided evidence on the reduction of elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Effective community approaches to prevent depression focus on several actions surrounding the strengthening of protective factors and the reduction
of risk factors. Examples of strengthening protective factors include school-based program targeting cognitive, problem-solving and social skills of children. Adolescents as well as exercise programs for the elderly. Interventions for parents of children with conduct problems aimed at improving parental psycho social well-being by information provision and by training in behavioral childbearing strategies may reduce parental depressive symptoms, with improvements in children’s outcomes.

Conclusion
Depression is a mental disorder that is pervasive in the world and affects us all. Unlike many large￾scale international problems, a solution for depression is at hand. Efficacious and cost-effective treatments are available to improve the health and the lives of the millions of people around the world suffering from depression. On an individual, community, and national level, it is time to educate ourselves about depression and support those who are suffering from this mental disorder.

FACT SHEET
Depression around the World
Who gets depression varies considerably across the populations of the world. Lifetime prevalence rates range from approximately 3 percent in Japan to 16.9 percent in the United States, with most countries falling somewhere between 8 to 12 percent.

(1) The lack of standard diagnostic screening criteria makes it difficult to compare depression rates cross-nation.In addition, cultural differences and different risk factors affect the expression of the disorder.
2.We do know that the symptoms of depression can be identified in all cultures.
3. There are certain risk factors that make some more likely to get depression than others.
4. Economic disadvantages, that is, poverty.
5. Social disadvantages, such as low education.
6. Genetics If you have someone in your immediate￾ family with the disorder, you are two to three times more likely to develop depression at some point in your life.
•7.Exposure to violence.
•8.Being separated or divorced, in most countries,especially for men.
•9. Other chronic illness.

Getting Help, Worldwide
There are many possible treatments for depression; and equally, if not more, barriers to getting treatment. Fewer than 25 percent of people across the world have access to treatments for depression. L

10.The World Health Organization recently studied what it calls the “treatment gaps” in mental health care and found that worldwide, the median rate for untreated depression is approximately 50 percent.

11. In some countries, fewer than 10% of people with depression receive any treatment.

Living with Depression

Living with depression, especially if it is chronic or recurring, can make you feel exhausted, over￾whelmed and helpless. These feelings can often make you want to give up. Recognizing that these negative thoughts are part of your depression is one step toward recovery. It is important to take good care of yourself throughout your treatment. This can be hardest in the beginning, especially before your treatment begins to work.

Taking Care of Yourself

Depression is real. It is an illness of the brain that usually requires some form of treatment. It is important for you to recognize this, to take the illness seriously, and to take good care of yourself.

Depression can make even the simplest parts of daily living very difficult. If possible, there are some things you can do to make yourself feel better, even
if only slightly. Your health care practitioner may make some of these suggestions as well.

• Consider some form of exercise daily. Exercise is good for both physical and mental health.
Establishing a regular exercise routine will help maintain a healthy weight and reduce stress

• levels, important for someone with depression.

• Try to eat a healthy balanced diet every day. A healthy diet, which includes whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, protein, and is low in fat, will help keep your body healthy.

• There are many relaxation techniques to lower your stress, including meditation and deep breathing, which can help with depression. These techniques, widely used around the world, are a low-cost way to lower stress.

• Maintain healthy sleep habits, as much as possible. Set up a regular routine for bedtime and
morning to be sure you are getting enough sleep, but not too much sleep.

• Avoid and reduce stress. Stress, both at work and home, can increase your feelings o depression. It is important to avoid stress in your daily life.

• Keep your working hours predictable and manageable. Openly communicate with family members and loved ones about what is going on in your life to foster better relationships and elicit their support.

• Limit or curtail alcohol or substance use or abuse. Use of these substances may worsen your symptoms of depression or interfere with your prescribed medications.

• Create a daily routine. Organizing and planning your day will help to manage the many daily life
tasks that you have to do. Create and maintain a monthly calendar.

• Be patient with yourself. For someone with depression, even the smallest tasks can seem impossible.Seeking Support

A network of family and friends can make all the difference for someone with depression. Seek out friends and family, as well as local organizations, for help in taking care of you.
Friends and Family
Family members and close friends can be a significant source of support for you in coping with your depression.

• They can make you feel like you are not alone.

• They can listen to you.

• They can help you to find resources and learn all
you can about depression.

• They can help you maintain a healthy lifestyle
every day.

• They can help you stick to your treatment plan.

Seek out friends who will stick by you and help you through tough times. Ask them for specific help with daily routines, such as getting to therapy, exercising with you and encouraging you to take good care of
yourself.

Peer Groups Support

Peer support groups or group meetings with other people with depression, can be helpful for some people. These groups, especially when well run and organized, provide insight into day-to-day coping with the disorder.

Research has shown these groups to be helpful in particular areas, such as providing support,
helping participants cope with problems and crises, and enabling participants to stick to treatment plans.

However, a recent systematic review found that more research is needed to fully understand and evaluate what conditions make these groups effective. Currently most preexistence-to-peer communities have been evaluated only in conjunction with additional interventions and interactions with health￾care professionals that coincide with participation in
support groups.

To locate a peer support group in your community,
consult referral hotlines of professional organizations, including your state, regional or provincial mental health association. Another possibility is a peer support group on the Internet. Currently, there are multiple organizations running these groups, reaching across the world. There is limited amount of research on the quality of these support groups and their impact on the symptoms of depression.

Nonetheless, depending upon where you live, it may be worthwhile investigating whether an online support group could be helpful for you. As with any online service, please executioner when considering it and spend some time researching the organization and the kind of support group they are running. This could include corresponding with the organization and asking them how they determine who can participate in the group and how they monitor the group. Or talk to your healthcare provider or another depression organization to see if they have heard about this group. Finally, another possibility is to ask to talk with or correspond with someone
who has participated in the support group. Although peer support groups are not for everyone, participation may make you feel less isolated and alone, and provide you with an opportunity to see how others with the disorder are successfully managing their lives. They also offer structured activities to cope with your illness.

Nonetheless, depending upon where you live, it may be worthwhile investigating whether an online support group could be helpful for you. As with any online service, please exercise caution when considering it and spend some time researching the organization and the kind of support group they are running. This could include corresponding with the organization and asking them how they determine who can participate in the group and how they monitor group. Or talk to your healthcare provider or another depression organization to see if they have heard about this group. Finally, another possibility is to ask to talk with or correspond with someone who has participated in the support group. Although peer support groups are not for everyone, participation may make you feel less isolated and alone, and provide you with opportunity to see how others with the disorder are successfully managing their
lives. They also offer structured activities to cope with your illness.

Mental Health Organizations
Many local community organizations, together with national organizations, can help by providing information and resources on many issues, from finding mental health service providers to resolving insurance matters or employment issues. See the Resources section at the end of this document for local organizations.

Recovery

In many places around the world, mostly developed nations, there has been increasing emphasis on recovery and active illness management for people with mental disorders, including depression. Born out of substance abuse and addiction programs, the
recovery model emphasizes the following:

Finding hope;

• Personal empowerment in your own treatment
and wellness;

• Expanding your knowledge about your illness
and its treatments;

• Establishing support networks and seeking
inclusion;

• Developing and refining coping strategies;

• Creating a secure home base;

• Defining a sense of meaning for your life.
Some have pointed to two different models of recovery, one developed by practitioners, the other by patients/mental health consumers. Both, however, involve these three points:

(1) Each person’s path to
recovery is unique;

(2) Recovery is a process, not an
end point; and

(3) Recovery is an active process, in which the individual takes responsibility for the out￾come, with success depending primarily on collaboration with helpful friends, family, the community and professional supports.
There are hundreds of recovery-based resources across the world.

In the United States, one such pro￾gram is the Wellness Recovery Action Plan, which recommends five actions for recovery:

1) Believe in yourself and your recovery.

2) Take personal responsibility.

3) Educate yourself.

4) Stand up for yourself.

5) Learn how to both receive and give support.

Summary
Living with depression can be difficult.

You will need a lot of support to maintain a healthy lifestyle and stick to your treatment.

Family members and
close friends can play critical roles in your treatment plan. Peer support groups and mental health organizations may also be sources of support for coping with depression.

There is a growing emphasis on a recovery model across the world that involves empowering people with mental illness to take charge of their own illness, their treatment and their lives.

We have come to the end of the lecture
I really appreciate the honor given to me to deliver the lecture of behalf of the National President in person of COMRADE OGUNROMBI GBEMILEKE O’LEKE my Capacity President.
GOD bless you all
OMO OGUN!!!!!

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